2022年 11月 10日

Python3的安装

环境信息

  • 操作系统:CentOS Linux release 7.6.1810

  • Python:3.6.5

现状说明

当前CentOS系统自带了python2.7.5,因为yum会用到python2,所以不能删除,此次安装了python3之后就保持两个版本长期共存吧。

本次安装采用的是下载python源码再编译的方式;

操作步骤

以root身份登录CentOS,以下操作都在默认的~目录下:

1、yum更新:

yum update -y

2、安装必要的软件

yum -y install \
zlib-devel \
bzip2-devel \
openssl-devel \
ncurses-devel \
sqlite-devel \
readline-devel \
tk-devel \
libffi-devel \
wget \
gcc \
make
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安装python解释器

wget https://www.python.org/ftp/python/3.6.5/Python-3.6.5.tgz

1、解压:

tar -zxvf Python-3.6.5.tgz

2、进入解压后的目录,执行编译前的configure操作:

cd Python-3.6.5 && ./configure prefix=/usr/local/python3

3、编译源码,在Python-3.6.5目录执行以下命令:

make && make install

4、编译成功后提示如下信息,setuptools和pip都已经部署成功:

Collecting setuptools
Collecting pip
Installing collected packages: setuptools, pip
Successfully installed pip-19.0.3 setuptools-40.8.0
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5、创建python3的链接:

ln -s /usr/local/python3/bin/python3.6 /usr/bin/python3

6、创建pip3的链接:

ln -s /usr/local/python3/bin/pip3 /usr/bin/pip3

7、pip3升级

pip3 install --upgrade pip
至此,安装完成,接下来简单验证一下

验证

1、简单操作如下,可见python3安装成功:

[root@python3 ~]# python3 --version
Python 3.7.4
[root@python3 ~]# pip3 --version
pip 19.1.1 from /usr/local/python3/lib/python3.7/site-packages/pip (python 3.7)
[root@python3 ~]# python3
Python 3.7.4 (default, Jul 20 2019, 11:35:19) 
[GCC 4.8.5 20150623 (Red Hat 4.8.5-36)] on linux
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> print("Hello world")
Hello world
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按下Ctrl+d退出python3对话模式

2、下载Flask
pip3 install Flask

控制台输出以下信息,表示安装Flask成功:

[root@python3 ~]# pip3 install Flask
Collecting Flask
  Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/9b/93/628509b8d5dc749656a9641f4caf13540e2cdec85276964ff8f43bbb1d3b/Flask-1.1.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl (94kB)
     |████████████████████████████████| 102kB 431kB/s 
Collecting itsdangerous>=0.24 (from Flask)
  Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/76/ae/44b03b253d6fade317f32c24d100b3b35c2239807046a4c953c7b89fa49e/itsdangerous-1.1.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting click>=5.1 (from Flask)
  Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/fa/37/45185cb5abbc30d7257104c434fe0b07e5a195a6847506c074527aa599ec/Click-7.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl (81kB)
     |████████████████████████████████| 81kB 1.3MB/s 
Collecting Jinja2>=2.10.1 (from Flask)
  Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/1d/e7/fd8b501e7a6dfe492a433deb7b9d833d39ca74916fa8bc63dd1a4947a671/Jinja2-2.10.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl (124kB)
     |████████████████████████████████| 133kB 1.8MB/s 
Collecting Werkzeug>=0.15 (from Flask)
  Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/d1/ab/d3bed6b92042622d24decc7aadc8877badf18aeca1571045840ad4956d3f/Werkzeug-0.15.5-py2.py3-none-any.whl (328kB)
     |████████████████████████████████| 337kB 3.4MB/s 
Collecting MarkupSafe>=0.23 (from Jinja2>=2.10.1->Flask)
  Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/98/7b/ff284bd8c80654e471b769062a9b43cc5d03e7a615048d96f4619df8d420/MarkupSafe-1.1.1-cp37-cp37m-manylinux1_x86_64.whl
Installing collected packages: itsdangerous, click, MarkupSafe, Jinja2, Werkzeug, Flask
Successfully installed Flask-1.1.1 Jinja2-2.10.1 MarkupSafe-1.1.1 Werkzeug-0.15.5 click-7.0 itsdangerous-1.1.0

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3、创建名为hello.py的文件,内容如下:

from flask import Flask

app = Flask(__name__)

@app.route('/')
def hello():
        return 'Hello flask'

if __name__ == '__main__':
        app.run(host='0.0.0.0',port=5000,debug=True)
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运行脚本:
python3 hello.py

当前CentOS电脑的IP地址是192.168.121.134,在浏览器访问: ,得到响应如下图所示:
[外链图片转存失败,源站可能有防盗链机制,建议将图片保存下来直接上传(img-c7gFudKv-1619168862112)(evernotecid://390F0520-10C2-4AEC-A72B-20FB5A698C8F/appyinxiangcom/24089645/ENResource/p98)]
至此,python3、pip3都验证通过。

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